Sun, Mar 26, 2017 | updated 03:05 AM IST

Study opens door to treatment of oesophageal cancer

Updated: Sep 06, 2016 17:31 IST

Washington D.C. [USA], Sept. 6 (ANI): In a recent study, scientists

have discovered that oesophageal cancer can be classified into three

different subtypes, paving the way for testing targeted treatments

tailored to patients' disease for the first time.

It could help find drugs that target specific weaknesses in each

subtype of the disease, which could make treatment more effective and

boost survival.

The scientists looked at the complete genetic make-up of 129

oesophageal cancers and were able to subdivide the disease into three

distinct types based on patterns detected in the DNA of the cancer

cells called signatures.

The first subtype they found had faults in their DNA repair pathways.

Damage to this pathway is known to increase the risk of breast,

ovarian and prostate cancers.

Patients with this subtype may benefit from a new family of drugs,

called PARP inhibitors, that kill cancer cells by exploiting this

weakness in their ability to repair DNA.

The second subtype had a higher number of DNA mistakes and more immune

cells in the tumours, which suggests these patients could benefit from

immunotherapy drugs already showing great promise in a number of

cancer types such as skin cancer.

The final subtype had a DNA signature that is mainly associated with

the cell ageing process and means this group might benefit from drugs

targeting proteins on the surface of the cancer cells which make cells

divide.

Lead researcher Professor Rebecca Fitzgerald, said "Our study suggests

we could make changes to the way we treat oesophageal cancer. Targeted

treatments for the disease have so far not been successful, and this

is mostly down to the lack of ways to determine which patients might

benefit from different treatments. These new findings give us a

greater understanding of the DNA signatures that underpin different

subtypes of the disease and means we could better tailor treatment."

He added, "The next step is to test this approach in a clinical trial.

The trial would use a DNA test to categorise patients into one of the

three groups to determine the best treatments for each group and move

away from a one-size-fits-all approach."

Each year around 8,800 people are diagnosed with oesophageal cancer in

UK and just 12 percent survive their disease for at least 10 years.

Cancer Research UK has prioritised research into oesophageal cancer to

help more people survive the disease by bringing people together,

building infrastructure and developing the next generation of research

leaders.

Co-researcher Peter Johnson said "Being able to distinguish distinct

types of oesophageal cancer is a genuinely new discovery from this

work. For the first time we may be able to identify and test targeted

treatments designed to exploit the cancer's specific weaknesses."

He added, "Although survival rates from oesophageal cancer have been

slowly rising in the last few years they are still far too low, and

this research points the way to a completely new way of understanding

and tackling the disease."

The research was published in Nature Genetics. (ANI)

New Delhi [India], Mar. 25 (ANI): The findings of the National Family Health Survey 2015-16 confirm what we all knew from clinical evidence - that hypertension has become a major health concern among the Indian population, with as many as 22% Indians hypertensive.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 25 (ANI): A prescription weight-loss medication can decrease the urge to use opiates such as oxycodone, according to a recent study.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 25 (ANI): A team of researchers has discovered a new gene that is associated with Tau accumulation, which is one of the defining features of Alzheimer disease (AD).

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 25 (ANI): All it takes is the flip of a protein "switch" within the tiny wire-like capillaries of the brain to increase the blood flow that ensures optimal brain function.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 25 (ANI): Scientists have found that stem cell therapy repairs damaged lungs - raising hopes of a cure for the crippling chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis.

Full Story >>

New method can cut dental implant failure

Updated: Mar 25, 2017 09:34 IST

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 25 (ANI): A team of researchers has come up with a new method to reduce dental implant failure.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 25 (ANI): A team of researchers has come up with a fluorogenic probe that can detect the activity of multidrug-resistant pathogens in an assay system.

Full Story >>

Virus hydrophobicity can help purify vaccines

Updated: Mar 25, 2017 07:46 IST

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 25 (ANI): A team of researchers has found that hydrophobic proteins on virus surfaces can help purify vaccines.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 25 (ANI): A team of researchers has shed light on why survivors of childhood brain tumours may be prone to heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and early death.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], Mar. 24 (ANI): Continuing its efforts to raise awareness on tuberculosis and its diagnosis, Division of Clinical Microbiology & Molecular Medicine Department of Laboratory Medicine, AIIMS, and BD (Becton Dickinson India) for the third consecutive year organized a symposium today on "challenges in diagnosis and eradication of tuberculosis".

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], Mar. 24 (ANI): On the solemn occasion of World Tuberculosis (TB) Day, Members of Parliament, policymakers, TB patients, survivors, and citizens of the civil society gathered at India Gate on Thursday, March 23 to pay tribute to the nearly five lakh lives lost due to this disease last year.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], Mar. 24 (ANI): Emergence of multi drug resistant TB and complications aggravated by high rates of co-infection with HIV-AIDS has renewed the threat of TB epidemic in India. With widespread prevalence of the infection, children experience a serious risk of contracting Tuberculosis, especially if they are under-nourished.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], Mar. 24 (ANI): Tuberculosis can affect any age, caste or class and it is one of the top 10 causes of death across the globe, ranking above HIV and malaria.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], Mar. 24 (ANI): Tuberculosis is one of the top 10 causes of death across the globe, ranking above HIV and malaria. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2015, there were 10.4 million new cases of TB worldwide.

Full Story >>

London [UK], Mar. 23 (ANI): Want happy families? Then delay your decision to start a family, as a study suggests, children born to older mother experience have fewer behavioural, social and emotional problems.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 23 (ANI): For women, stay fit and maintain a healthy weight, as a study finds a higher waist-to-hip ratios increases the risk of ovarian cancer risk by more than a fifth.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 23 (ANI): A study finds that people who are born blind have heightened sense of hearing, smell and touch, suggesting that their brain "rewires" itself in the absence of visual information to boost other senses.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], Mar. 23 (ANI): For those suffering with age-related (degenerative) arthritis of the knee, a stage comes when all the reasonable non-operative options stops working.

Full Story >>

Hepatitis drug can help cut Ebola death rate

Updated: Mar 22, 2017 09:30 IST

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 22 (ANI): A class of drugs used to treat hepatitis and some forms of multiple sclerosis has shown promise in treating Ebola.

Full Story >>

Weekend surgery 'not riskier'

Updated: Mar 22, 2017 09:20 IST

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 22 (ANI): Day of the week has no impact on the survival chances of people undergoing emergency surgery, a new research has found.

Full Story >>