Fri, Mar 31, 2017 | updated 05:59 AM IST

Ionising radiations damage DNA leading to cancer: Study

Updated: Sep 13, 2016 08:49 IST

Washington D.C. [USA], Sept. 13 (ANI): A recent research identifies two characteristic patterns of DNA damage caused by ionising radiation in human cancers.

These fingerprint patterns may now enable doctors to diagnose which tumors have been caused by radiation and examine if they should be treated differently.

The results will also help to explain how radiation can cause cancer.

Ionising radiation, such as gamma rays, X-rays and radioactive particles can cause cancer by damaging DNA.

However, how this happens, or how many tumours are caused by radiation damage has not been known.

Previous work on cancer had revealed that DNA damage often leaves a molecular fingerprint, known as a mutational signature, on the genome of a cancer cell.

The researchers looked for mutational signatures in 12 patients with secondary radiation-associated tumors, comparing these with 319 that had not been exposed to radiation.

Peter Campbell, who led the study said, "To find out how radiation could cause cancer, we studied the genomes of cancers caused by radiation in comparison to tumours that arose spontaneously. By comparing the DNA sequences we found two mutational signatures for radiation damage that were independent of cancer type."

"We then checked the findings with prostate cancers that had or had not been exposed to radiation, and found the same two signatures again. These mutational signatures help us explain how high-energy radiation damages DNA," he added.

One mutational signature is a deletion where small numbers of DNA bases are cut out.

The second is called a balanced inversion, where the DNA is cut in two places, the middle piece spins round, and is joined back again in the opposite orientation.

Balanced inversions do not happen naturally in the body, but high-energy radiation could provide enough DNA breaks at the same time to make this possible.

Researchers also said, "Ionising radiation probably causes all types of mutational damage, but here we can see two specific types of damage and get a sense of what is happening to the DNA. Showers of radiation chop up the genome causing lots of damage simultaneously. This seems to overwhelm the DNA repair mechanism in the cell, leading to the DNA damage we see."

Professor Adrienne Flanagan, a collaborating cancer researcher said, "This is the first time that scientists have been able to define the damage caused to DNA by ionising radiation. These mutational signatures could be a diagnosis tool for both individual cases, and for groups of cancers, and could help us find out which cancers are caused by radiation. Once we have better understanding of this, we can study whether they should be treated the same or differently to other cancers."

The research was published in Nature Communications. (ANI)

New Delhi [India], Mar. 31 (ANI): Tennis elbow is a common problem among sportsperson, caused by the overuse of the hand muscles including arm and forearm.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], Mar. 31 (ANI): Heart of a deceased civilian of the Indian Airforce in Delhi was flown to Chennai recently, to save life of an old man, who was awaiting a suitable heart for transplantation.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): A new study has suggested that the use of cannabis may impact treatment in women undergoing methadone treatment therapy.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): A recent research has shown that dopamine levels fall during the migraine attacks.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): Making your bones stronger may be as easy as getting injections of peptide, according to a recent study.

Full Story >>

There's a placebo for broken hearts too

Updated: Mar 30, 2017 11:17 IST

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): Turns out, placebos alleviate not only physical pain, but also emotional one.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): A team of researchers has come up with a method for measuring free radicals, which are atoms or groups of atoms with unpaired electrons thought to be partly responsible for making smokers sick, and this could help improve the understanding of the relationship between these substances and health.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): A team of scientists is taking a new tack that could finally yield promising obesity treatments.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): Determining the cause of an ischemic stroke is critical to prevent a second one and now, a new software-based system has offered hope.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): Pain of the hospitalized patients can be eased by immersing them in a virtual reality world, according a recent study.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 30 (ANI): A team of researchers has come up with a technique that has made tracing hazardous chemicals from fast-food wrappers in the body possible.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], Mar. 29 (ANI): Expressing her delight over the passing of Mental Healthcare bill in the Lok Sabha, a therapist thanked Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the elected representatives for taking an initiative for people who are struggling with mental issue.

Full Story >>

Washington.D.C. [USA], Mar. 29 (ANI): A study finds that gastric acid suppression drugs increase the risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection - which causes diarrhea and life-threatening inflammation of the colon.

Full Story >>

Ranchi [India], Mar. 28 (ANI): Health Minister of Jharkhand, Ramchandra Chandravanshi has recently claimed that the state has come a long way from the day when Jharkhand was on 18th number among states as far as their healthcare services were concerned. It now stands third in the country, according to an independent survey.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 28 (ANI): Exposure to fungal product, called aflatoxin, is believed to cause up to 80 percent of liver cancer cases in many parts of the world.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 26 (ANI): Attention dog lovers! With just six months of training, a German Shepherd can accurately detect breast cancer, a study finds.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 26 (ANI): A recent study has found that a sleepless night impairs your ability to interpret subtle expressions of happiness and sadness.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 26 (ANI): When it comes to new moms' workout programs, less is more and so, according to a Kansas State University researcher, new moms may need a bit more flexibility and support to ease back into exercise after giving birth.

Full Story >>

New approach to diagnosing mental disorders

Updated: Mar 26, 2017 10:48 IST

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 26 (ANI): A consortium of psychiatrists and psychologists has proposed a new approach to diagnosing mental disorders.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Mar. 26 (ANI): Boosting natural brain opioids may be a better way to treat anxiety, according to a recent study.

Full Story >>