Thu, Apr 27, 2017 | updated 04:50 AM IST

90% of strokes can be prevented

Updated: Jul 16, 2016 08:50 IST      
90% of strokes can be prevented

Washington D.C, Jul 16 (ANI): Just when you thought strokes can strike anyone at any time, a team of researchers report that 90 percent of them are preventable.

High blood pressure remains the single most important modifiable risk factor for stroke and the impact of hypertension and nine other risk factors together account for 90 percent of all strokes, according to an analysis of nearly 27000 people from every continent in the world (INTERSTROKE).

Although the same ten risk factors were important and together accounted for 90 percent of stroke risk in all regions, the relative role of some individual risk factors varied by region, which the authors say should influence the development of strategies for reducing stroke risk.

The study led by Dr Martin O'Donnell and Prof Salim Yusuf of the McMaster University, along with collaborators from 32 countries, builds on preliminary findings from the first phase of the INTERSTROKE study, which identified ten modifiable risk factors for stroke in 6000 participants from 22 countries.

O'Donnell noted, "This study is of an adequate size and scope to explore stroke risk factors in all major regions of the world, within key populations and within stroke subtypes. The wider reach confirms the ten modifiable risk factors associated with 90 percent of stroke cases in all regions, young and older and in men and women. The study confirms that hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor in all regions, and the key target in reducing the burden of stroke globally."

To estimate the proportion of strokes caused by specific risk factors, the investigators calculated the population attributable risk for each factor. The PAR, which is an estimate of the overall disease burden that could be reduced if an individual risk factor were eliminated, was 47.9 percent for hypertension, 35.8 percent for physical inactivity, 23.2 percent for poor diet, 18.6 percent for obesity, 12.4 percent for smoking, 9.1 percent for cardiac (heart) causes, 3.9 percent for diabetes, 5.8 percent for alcohol intake, 5.8 percent for stress, and 26.8 percent for lipids.

Many of these risk factors are known to also be associated with each other (e.g. obesity and diabetes), and when combined together, the total PAR for all ten risk factors was 90.7 percent, which was similar in all regions, age groups and in men and women.

Interestingly, the importance of some risk factors appeared to vary by region. For example, the PAR for hypertension ranged from 38.8 percent in western Europe, North America and Australia to 59.6 percent in Southeast Asia, the PAR for alcohol intake was lowest in western Europe, North America, Australia and highest in Africa (10.4 percent) and south Asia (10.7 percent), while the PAR for physical inactivity was highest in China.

Atrial fibrillation (irregular heart rhythm) was significantly associated with ischaemic stroke (PAR ranging from 3.1 percent in south Asia to 17.1 percent in western Europe, North America, and Australia), as was a high apolipoprotein [ApoB]/A1 ratio (PAR ranging from 24.8 percent in western Europe, North America, and Australia to 67.6 percent in southeast Asia).

Yusuf added, "Our findings will inform the development of global population-level interventions to reduce stroke, and how such programmes may be tailored to individual regions, as we did observe some regional differences in the importance of some risk factors by region. This includes better health education, more affordable healthy food, avoidance of tobacco and more affordable medication for hypertension and dyslipidaemia."

Writing in a linked Comment, Professor Valery L Feigin and Dr Rita Krishnamurthi from the National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences said: "Three key messages can be drawn from this study. First, stroke is a highly preventable disease globally, irrespective of age and sex. Second, the relative importance of modifiable risk factors and their PAR necessitates the development of regional or ethnic-specific primary prevention programmes, including priority settings such as focusing on risk factors contributing most to the risk of stroke in a particular region (as determined by PAR). Third, additional research on stroke risk factors is needed for countries and ethnic groups not included in INTERSTROKE, as well as definitive cost-effectiveness research on primary stroke prevention in key populations (eg, different age, sex, ethnicity, or region)."

They added, "It should also be emphasised that stroke prevention programmes must be integrated with prevention of other major non-communicable diseases that share common risk factors with stroke to be cost-effective. We have heard the calls for actions about primary prevention. Now is the time for governments, health organisations, and individuals to proactively reduce the global burden of stroke. Governments of all countries should develop and implement an emergency action plan for the primary prevention of stroke."

The study appears in The Lancet. (ANI)

Lung for Long: Gasp No More

Updated: Apr 26, 2017 18:45 IST     

New Delhi [India], Apr 26 (ANI-Businesswire India): Lungs in Delhi seem to be in dire straits. In the midst of ever thickening air pollution and lifestyle gone astray, lung power is ebbing fast. Data emerging from April 25 lung health camp organized in iconic Press Club of India (PCI) on the occasion of World Asthma Day pressed panic button as regards lung health of the capital city.

Full Story >>

Risk of obesity influenced by changes in our genes

Updated: Apr 26, 2017 15:22 IST     

New Delhi [India], Apr 26 (ANI): According to new study, a child's risk of obesity while growing up can be influenced by modifications to their DNA prior to birth.

Full Story >>

Patient with rare knee cancer undergoes life saving surgery

Updated: Apr 26, 2017 13:52 IST     

New Delhi [India], Apr 26 (ANI): A resident of Ganganager, in Rajasthan, was diagnosed of Large Soft Tissue Sarcoma (9Kg), with Neuro Vascular involvement.

Full Story >>

Here`s how protein impacts intellectual disability

Updated: Apr 26, 2017 07:36 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 26 (ANI): A new study has paved the way for the potential treatments of intellectual disability and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

Full Story >>

Stem cells can help identify neuronal defects, suggests Study

Updated: Apr 25, 2017 12:26 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 25 (ANI): According to a recent study, the researchers used stem cells derived from patients with Angelman syndrome to identify the underlying cellular defects that cause the rare neurogenetic disorder.

Full Story >>

#WorldMalariaDay: Effective steps to prevent Malaria

Updated: Apr 25, 2017 11:01 IST     

New Delhi [India], Apr 25 (ANI): The theme for World Malaria Day this year is "End Malaria for Good".

Full Story >>

Artificial Intelligence may help in diagnosing Tuberoculosis

Updated: Apr 25, 2017 11:01 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 25 (ANI): If you are a patient of Tuberculosis, then we might have some good news for you.

Full Story >>

London [UK], Apr 25 (ANI): According to a new study, only one in five victims with serious injuries caused by child abuse in England and Wales gets treated at a major trauma centre.

Full Story >>

Gene reveals cause of fatal childhood disorder: Study

Updated: Apr 24, 2017 17:51 IST     

New Delhi [India], Apr 24 (ANI): A gene, involved in brain development, which can lead to severe disability and infant death, has been identified by scientists.

Full Story >>

Alcohol: the modern age liver killer

Updated: Apr 24, 2017 17:51 IST     

New Delhi [India], Apr 24 (ANI): Alcohol is predominantly metabolized through liver, hence its cumulative toxicity over years play important role in liver diseases or pancreatic diseases.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], April 24 (ANI): Due to increasing deaths because of prostate cancer among men, US researchers have suggested a special screening more frequently and at an early age to avoid the development of preclinical prostate cancer - that is not symptomatic - to advanced stages.

Full Story >>

Love guzzling diet sodas? Here is why you should NOT

Updated: Apr 24, 2017 07:02 IST     

New York [U.S.], Apr. 24 (ANI): Still downing gallons of diet soda despite knowing that it wrecks your body? Maybe the knowledge of artificially sweetened beverages taking a toll on your brain as well ought to make an impact on your unhealthy habit.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 23 (ANI): A recent study has demonstrated that in the general population, central obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and high alcohol consumption were the strongest predictors of severe liver disease.

Full Story >>

Breastmilk may help detect your cancer risk

Updated: Apr 23, 2017 11:50 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 23 (ANI): Breastmilk might offer clues about a woman's cancer risk, according to a recent research.

Full Story >>

Soon, new weapon in war against obesity

Updated: Apr 23, 2017 11:14 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 23 (ANI): A team of scientists has uncovered a potential approach to combat obesity.

Full Story >>

Turns out, being obese is worse than smoking

Updated: Apr 23, 2017 10:52 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 23 (ANI): You may want to shed those extra kilos as a recent study has found obesity as a top cause of preventable life-years lost.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 23 (ANI): Testing for molecular markers in the urine of kidney transplant patients could reveal whether the transplant is failing and why, according to a recent research.

Full Story >>

From urine to blood: How antibiotic resistance spreads

Updated: Apr 23, 2017 09:25 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], Apr 23 (ANI): People with drug-resistant bacteria in their urine or stool samples are at an increased risk of developing Sepsis, a bloodstream infection that is also resistant to certain antibiotics, according to a recent study.

Full Story >>

Move over contact lenses, LASIK is better

Updated: Apr 22, 2017 18:05 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], April 22 (ANI): Good news for those who underwent LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) for correction of their vision, as a recent study has found that the rate of cornea infection is lower.

Full Story >>

Early detection of oral cancer can increase survival chances

Updated: Apr 22, 2017 08:03 IST     

New Delhi [India], Apr. 22 (ANI): In today's era of booming medical advancements, the chances of survival from cancer can be increased, if it is detected at an early stage.

Full Story >>