Mon, May 29, 2017 | updated 09:32 AM IST

New path shows development of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in children

Updated: Oct 25, 2016 12:19 IST      
New path shows development of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder in children

Washington D.C. [USA], Oct.25 (ANI): A study says that children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience disruptions in the structure of the neural networks inside their brains.

The findings could help in the development of treatments for the disorder, researchers said.

PTSD is a mental health problem that occurs in the wake of one or more traumatic experiences. Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of PTSD, as the multiple neurochemical and hormonal effects associated with childhood trauma can lead to lasting changes in brain structure and function. Brain imaging with MRI is a promising tool for identifying vulnerable patients and allowing interventions to begin sooner, potentially preventing any adverse brain changes.

Researchers from China recently used MRI to compare brain structure in 24 pediatric PTSD patients and a control group of 23 trauma-exposed children without PTSD. The children had experienced the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a massive disaster in south central China that killed almost 70,000 people and injured more than 370,000.

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), an MRI technique that measures the integrity of the brain's white matter, was used to look at the brain's connectome, or the map of the neural connections in the brain. The human connectome includes a series of nodes, or brain regions, linked by connections known as edges. Nodes with a relatively high number of edges are referred to as hubs.

"Generally speaking, the structural connectome and the functional connectome are based on different types of raw images, which may be used to investigate the brain's abnormalities through different views," said study lead author Qiyong Gong.

Using DTI results and graph theory, a relatively simple and widely used way of modeling the human brain connectome, the researchers were able find significant structural differences between the PTSD and non-PTSD groups. The PTSD group had changes suggestive of decreased local and global network efficiency due to damage or disconnection between linked regions.

The researchers also identified a concerning trend in the structural connectome of PTSD patients. Normally, the brain operates partly as a small-world network, or a type of mathematical model in which most nodes can be reached from every other node by a small number of steps. A small-world network aids in the high-efficiency parallel information transfer between networks that is necessary for brain function.

However, in the PTSD patients, the structural connectome showed a trend toward regularization--a phenomenon in which the neural network moves from a small-world to a more regular network. A regular network is more localized, so it takes many more steps to reach distant nodes.

"In a previous functional and current structural connectome study of the same patient group, we found a shift toward regularization in the brain networks of the PTSD patients relative to controls," Dr. Gong said. "Thus, we speculate that this regularization process may be a general pattern of pediatric PTSD."

Differences were also observed in the salience network, a collection of brain regions that select which stimuli are deserving of attention. The finding could point to a potential target for future treatment plans in pediatric PTSD.

"These abnormalities suggest that PTSD can be better understood by examining the dysfunction of large-scale spatially distributed neural networks," Dr. Gong said.

The researchers hope to perform follow-up imaging on at least some of the patients in the study to further study brain changes associated with PTSD.

The study has been published in Radiology. (ANI)

Soon, an accurate, cheap genetic test for anal cancer

Updated: May 28, 2017 13:56 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 28 (ANI): A new genetic test could be an accurate and inexpensive way to find and treat those at highest risk of anal cancer - a disease with growing incidence in women, men who have sex with men (MSM) and people with HIV.

Full Story >>

Fight against leprosy: Efforts honoured with ICN award

Updated: May 28, 2017 13:44 IST     

New Delhi [India], May 28 (ANI): The International Council of Nurses (ICN) presented its Health and Human Rights Award to Yohei Sasakawa, Chairman of the Nippon Foundation, at the 2017 ICN Congress in Barcelona, Spain, on May 27.

Full Story >>

Higher BMI can cause cardiovascular problems for youngsters

Updated: May 28, 2017 08:56 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 28 (ANI): A recent study shows that higher than normal Body Mass Index (BMI) may cause worse cardiovascular health in those aged as young as 17.

Full Story >>

Probiotics helpful in treating depression: Study

Updated: May 28, 2017 08:36 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 28 (ANI): According to a new study, adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reported improvements from co-existing depression, when they took a specific pro-biotic than adults with IBS who took a placebo.

Full Story >>

Exposure to diesel pollution ups risk of heart attack

Updated: May 28, 2017 07:10 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 28 (ANI): A word of caution; avoid places with heavy traffic or try to find a different route as a study has warned that exposure to diesel pollution causes heart attack, heart failure and death.

Full Story >>

Statins improves heart structure and function: Study

Updated: May 27, 2017 23:02 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 27 (ANI): Briton researchers have found that group of drugs, which act to reduce levels of cholesterol in the blood, is linked to improved heart structure and its function.

Full Story >>

Rock climbing for three hours a week may treat depression

Updated: May 27, 2017 19:14 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 27 (ANI): A team of researchers have revealed that bouldering, a form of rock climbing performed without the use of ropes or harnesses, for three hours a week may help to treat depression.

Full Story >>

Beware! Recreational cannabis doubles the risk of gum disease

Updated: May 27, 2017 16:56 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 27 (ANI): Beware! A study has warned that frequent recreational use of cannabis, including marijuana, hashish, and hash oil, doubles the risk of gum disease.

Full Story >>

Bengaluru (Karnataka) [India], May 27 (ANI): BGS Gleneagles Global Hospitals, a Parkway Pantai enterprise, successfully pioneered the day care Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) transplant program for low risk transplants like autologous transplant for multiple myeloma and mini-allo transplant for various hematological disorders.

Full Story >>

New hope for stroke patients with disabilities

Updated: May 27, 2017 11:22 IST     

Washington D.C.[USA], May 27 (ANI): Stroke patients left with disabilities have been offered new hope as scientists have developed mind-controlled device that helps them retrain brains to move paralyzed hands.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], May 27 (ANI): According to a new study, people suffering from HIV tend to spend more time in therapy to manage the chronic condition.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], May 26 (ANI): Latest robotic surgery may work as a boon for patients suffering from early stage oropharyngeal carcinoma (cancer of the mouth, neck and throat).

Full Story >>

23-year-old suffers severe heart attack due to smoking

Updated: May 26, 2017 16:01 IST     

New Delhi [India], May 26 (ANI): With several reasons attributing to a paradigm shift in the age groups suffering from heart attacks to younger age brackets, tobacco induced cardiac arrests rate as one of the topmost ones.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], May 26 (ANI): According to statistics, India has the third largest Muslim population in the world. The month of Ramadan is about to begin and a vast majority of this population will be fasting for a large number of days.

Full Story >>

Frequent recreational weed puts your mouth at risk

Updated: May 26, 2017 08:12 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 26 (ANI): Frequent recreational use of cannabis, including marijuana, hashish, and hash oil, ups the risk of gum disease, a recent study has found.

Full Story >>

Washington D.C. [USA], May 25 (ANI): A study, presented at EuroCMR, says that chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy react more on men than women.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], May 25 (ANI): Envisioning a leap in emergency care, Aster DM Healthcare on Thursday launched its most novel and unique concept, the 'Aster Emergency' app, which will offer real-time interface between the patient in emergency and a GPS-enabled Aster 'Responder'.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], May 25 (ANI-BusinessWireIndia): Everyuth Naturals, a pioneer and a leading skincare brand known for its natural ingredients and effective products has announced the re-launch of its flagship product in the face wash category with-the new improved Everyuth Tulsi Turmeric Face Wash.

Full Story >>

New Delhi [India], May 25 (ANI): A Sutureless Valve Replacement surgery was recently performed on a 78 year old patient by Global Hospitals, Mumbai.

Full Story >>

Suicide rates among people with autism on rise

Updated: May 25, 2017 11:26 IST     

Washington D.C. [USA], May 25 (ANI): According to a recent study, suicide rates among autism patients have reached 'worryingly' high levels.

Full Story >>