Cancer cells send out alarm to warn against tumour-killing virus

   Mar 16, 4:57 pm

Washington, March 16(ANI): A new study involving an Indian origin scientist has found that brain-tumor cells that are infected with a cancer-killing virus release a protein " alarm bell" that warns other tumour cells of the impending infection and enables them to mount a defense against the virus.

The study was led by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James).

The infected tumour cells release a protein called CCN1 into the narrow space between cells where it initiates an antiviral response. The response limits the spread of the oncolytic virus through the tumour, reducing its ability to kill cancer cells and limiting the efficacy of the therapy.

The study suggested that cells in general might use this mechanism to help control viral infections, and that blocking the response might improve oncolytic viral therapy for glioblastoma and perhaps future gene therapy treatments.

Oncolytic viruses replicate in tumour cells and kill them. They have shown promise for the treatment of glioblastoma, the most common and deadly form of brain cancer. Patients with glioblastoma survive about 15 months after diagnosis on average, so there is great need for new treatments.

"We found that, in the extracellular matrix, this protein orchestrates a striking cellular antiviral response that reduces viral replication and limits its cytolytic efficacy," explained researcher and principal investigator Balveen Kaur, associate professor of Neurological Surgery at the OSUCCC - James.

"These findings are significant because they reveal a novel mechanism used by infected cells to fight viral infections and alert adjacent uninfected cells to prepare their defences to fight off forthcoming viral attacks," Kaur said.

Kaur noted that CCN1 helps regulate cellular functions that include adhesion, migration, and proliferation, and that it is overexpressed in 68 percent of glioblastoma specimens.

Previous research led by Kaur found that oncolytic virus therapy induced the release of CCN1 into the tumour microenvironment. For this study, Kaur and her colleagues used glioma cell lines, oncolytic viruses derived from human herpesvirus type 1 (HSV-1), and glioblastoma animal models.

They found that CNN1 expression is upregulated by the oncolytic virus but not by chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Thus, it may be a general response of glioma cells to viral infection.

In the extracellular space, CCN1 reduces viral replication and the killing of glioma cells.

CCN1 induces a type-I interferon antiviral response using an integrin cell-surface receptor.

"Overall, this finding reveals how extracellular signaling can contribute to viral clearance. We can now utilize this knowledge to improve future viral gene therapy," Kaur concluded.

The study was published in a recent issue of the journal Cancer Research. (ANI)

Pulmonary hypertension's links with diabetes, cancer discovered Oct 31, 3:02 pm
Washington, Oct 31 (ANI): A team of scientists have discovered pulmonary hypertension's links with diabetes and cancer.
Full Story
Seizures, migraines produced by single gene mutation Oct 31, 2:14 pm
Washington, Oct 31 (ANI): In a new study, scientists have found that seizures and migraines may actually be linked as they could be produced by a single gene mutation.
Full Story
Today's kids could experience time travel, invisibility cloaks during lifetimes Oct 31, 1:35 pm
London, Oct 31 (ANI): A new study has predicted that some of the amazing phenomenons like time travel, invisibility cloaks and teleportation could be part of everyday life of today's kids by 2025.
Full Story
Newborn babies' weight governs risk for future diseases Oct 31, 1:35 pm
Washington, Oct 31 (ANI): A new study has shown a link between a baby's weight at the time of birth and the risk of diseases in the longer run.
Full Story
Comments

LATEST STORIES
TOP VIDEO STORIES
PHOTO GALLERY